Skip Nav

Qualitative Methods

This article is a part of the guide:

❶Basics of social research.

Quantitative Research

Qualitative Research
Unstructured Interviewing
Navigation menu

Results are compared with results from groups not exposed to the variable. Experimental Designs , often called true experimentation, use the scientific method to establish cause-effect relationship among a group of variables in a research study.

Researchers make an effort to control for all variables except the one being manipulated the independent variable. The effects of the independent variable on the dependent variable are collected and analyzed for a relationship.

When deciding on the appropriate approach, the Decision Tree from Ebling Library may be helpful. The following video, Quantitative Research Designs, further describes the differences between quantitative research approaches and offers tips on how to decide on methodology.

Planning the Methodology — The Quantitative Pathway — The following link provides a description of the four types of quantitative approaches and examples of each.

Quantitative Design — The following resource describes quantitative research approaches and exmaples. Choosing an appropriate study design — Below is a link to a presentation that describes the factors to consider when choosing the appropriate approach for quantitative research.

This pin will expire , on Change. This pin never expires. Select an expiration date. About Us Contact Us. Select an expiration date. About Us Contact Us. Search Community Search Community. An Overview of Quantitative Research This modules provides a basic overview of quantitative research, including its key characteristics and advantages. Describe the uses of quantitative research design.

Provide examples of when quantitative research methodology should be used. Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of quantitative research. The data collected is numeric, allowing for collection of data from a large sample size.

Statistical analysis allows for greater objectivity when reviewing results and therefore, results are independent of the researcher. Numerical results can be displayed in graphs, charts, tables and other formats that allow for better interpretation.

Data analysis is less time-consuming and can often be done using statistical software. Results can be generalized if the data are based on random samples and the sample size was sufficient. Data collection methods can be relatively quick, depending on the type of data being collected. Numerical quantitative data may be viewed as more credible and reliable, especially to policy makers, decision makers, and administrators. How often do college students between the ages of access Facebook?

What is the difference in the number of calories consumed between male and female high school students?

A fundamental principle in quantitative research is that correlation does not imply causation , although some such as Clive Granger suggest that a series of correlations can imply a degree of causality. This principle follows from the fact that it is always possible a spurious relationship exists for variables between which covariance is found in some degree.

Associations may be examined between any combination of continuous and categorical variables using methods of statistics. Views regarding the role of measurement in quantitative research are somewhat divergent.

Measurement is often regarded as being only a means by which observations are expressed numerically in order to investigate causal relations or associations.

However, it has been argued that measurement often plays a more important role in quantitative research. This is because accepting a theory based on results of quantitative data could prove to be a natural phenomenon. He argued that such abnormalities are interesting when done during the process of obtaining data, as seen below:. In classical physics, the theory and definitions which underpin measurement are generally deterministic in nature.

In contrast, probabilistic measurement models known as the Rasch model and Item response theory models are generally employed in the social sciences. Psychometrics is the field of study concerned with the theory and technique for measuring social and psychological attributes and phenomena.

This field is central to much quantitative research that is undertaken within the social sciences. Quantitative research may involve the use of proxies as stand-ins for other quantities that cannot be directly measured. Tree-ring width, for example, is considered a reliable proxy of ambient environmental conditions such as the warmth of growing seasons or amount of rainfall. Although scientists cannot directly measure the temperature of past years, tree-ring width and other climate proxies have been used to provide a semi-quantitative record of average temperature in the Northern Hemisphere back to A.

When used in this way, the proxy record tree ring width, say only reconstructs a certain amount of the variance of the original record. The proxy may be calibrated for example, during the period of the instrumental record to determine how much variation is captured, including whether both short and long term variation is revealed.

In the case of tree-ring width, different species in different places may show more or less sensitivity to, say, rainfall or temperature: In most physical and biological sciences , the use of either quantitative or qualitative methods is uncontroversial, and each is used when appropriate. In the social sciences, particularly in sociology , social anthropology and psychology , the use of one or other type of method can be a matter of controversy and even ideology, with particular schools of thought within each discipline favouring one type of method and pouring scorn on to the other.

The majority tendency throughout the history of social science, however, is to use eclectic approaches-by combining both methods. Qualitative methods might be used to understand the meaning of the conclusions produced by quantitative methods. Using quantitative methods, it is possible to give precise and testable expression to qualitative ideas. This combination of quantitative and qualitative data gathering is often referred to as mixed-methods research. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Direct Observation

Main Topics

Privacy Policy

Things to keep in mind when reporting the results of a study using quantitative methods: Explain the data collected and their statistical treatment as well as all relevant results in relation to the research problem you are investigating. Interpretation of results is not appropriate in this section.

Privacy FAQs

What’s the difference between qualitative and quantitative research? Susan E. DeFranzo September 16, Many times those that undertake a research project often find they are not aware of the differences between Qualitative Research and Quantitative Research methods.

About Our Ads

Research methods in education (and the other social sciences) are often. divided into two main types: quantitative and qualitative methods. This. book will discuss one of these two main strands: ‘quantitative methods’, and what . The following video, Quantitative Research Designs, further describes the differences between quantitative research approaches and offers tips on how to decide on methodology. Suggested Readings: Bernard, H. R., & Bernard, H. R. ().

Cookie Info

Learn about the distinction between quantitative and qualitative methods of research, and some advantages and disadvantages of each. Qualitative Methods There are a wide variety of methods that are common in qualitative measurement. In fact, the methods are largely limited by the imagination of .