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Hypotheses

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❶Procedure For Hypothesis Testing. Validity refers to what degree the research reflects the given research problem, while Reliability refers to how consistent a set of measurements are.

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What Is a Hypothesis?

What Is a Hypothesis? A hypothesis should always: Explain what you expect to happen Be clear and understandable Be testable Be measurable And contain an independent and dependent variable How to Develop a Hypothesis Another important aspect of a hypothesis is that it should be based on research.

Examine the differences in the following hypotheses: Not studying may cause a lower grade on my test. If I do not study, then I will make a low grade on the test. Try it risk-free No obligation, cancel anytime. Want to learn more? Select a subject to preview related courses: Examples We've used a couple of examples already, but let's look at some more examples of good and poor hypotheses.

Example 1 If people see funny commercials, then they are more likely to purchase a product. If people prefer funny commercials, then funny commercials will produce more sales. Example 2 If you spend a lot of time in the sun, then you will increase your risk of skin cancer. If skin cancer is related to sun exposure, then people who spend more time in the sun will have a higher frequency of skin cancer. Example 3 A plant that receives fertilizer will become larger than a plant that does not receive fertilizer.

If fertilizer helps grow larger plants and a plant is given fertilizer, then it will be larger than a plant that does not receive fertilizer. Lesson Summary Put simply, a hypothesis is a specific, testable prediction. Describe what a hypothesis is Determine the variables of the hypothesis Identify if it is testable and measureable Explain examples of an hypothesis. Unlock Your Education See for yourself why 30 million people use Study. Become a Member Already a member?

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When both variables are continuous in nature, language describing a positive or negative association between the variables can be used for example, as education increases, so does income. For hypotheses with categorical variables, a statement about which category of the independent variable is associated with a certain category of the dependent variable can be made for example, men are more likely to support Republican candidates than women.

Continuous variables can also be spoken about it categorical terms those with higher education are more likely to have high incomes. Most researchers prefer to present research hypotheses in a directional format, meaning that some statement is made about the expected relationship based on examination of existing theory, past research, general observation, or even an educated guess.

It is also appropriate to use the null hypothesis instead, which states simply that no relationship exists between the variables; recall that the null hypothesis forms the basis of all statistical tests of significance. Hypotheses in Qualitative Studies Hypotheses in qualitative studies serve a very different purpose than in quantitative studies.

Due to the inductive nature of qualitative studies, the generation of hypotheses does not take place at the outset of the study. Sometimes a study is designed to be exploratory see inductive research. There is no formal hypothesis, and perhaps the purpose of the study is to explore some area more thoroughly in order to develop some specific hypothesis or prediction that can be tested in future research. A single study may have one or many hypotheses. Actually, whenever I talk about an hypothesis, I am really thinking simultaneously about two hypotheses.

Let's say that you predict that there will be a relationship between two variables in your study. The way we would formally set up the hypothesis test is to formulate two hypothesis statements, one that describes your prediction and one that describes all the other possible outcomes with respect to the hypothesized relationship.

Your prediction is that variable A and variable B will be related you don't care whether it's a positive or negative relationship. Then the only other possible outcome would be that variable A and variable B are not related. Usually, we call the hypothesis that you support your prediction the alternative hypothesis, and we call the hypothesis that describes the remaining possible outcomes the null hypothesis. Sometimes we use a notation like H A or H 1 to represent the alternative hypothesis or your prediction, and H O or H 0 to represent the null case.

You have to be careful here, though. In some studies, your prediction might very well be that there will be no difference or change. In this case, you are essentially trying to find support for the null hypothesis and you are opposed to the alternative. If your prediction specifies a direction, and the null therefore is the no difference prediction and the prediction of the opposite direction, we call this a one-tailed hypothesis.

Characteristics of hypothesis in Research Methodology

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Hypothesis. In research, a hypothesis is a suggested explanation of a phenomenon. A null hypothesis is a hypothesis which a researcher tries to disprove. Normally, the null hypothesis represents the current view/explanation of an aspect of the world that the researcher wants to challenge.

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An hypothesis is a specific statement of prediction. It describes in concrete (rather than theoretical) terms what you expect will happen in your study. Not all studies have hypotheses. Sometimes a study is designed to be exploratory (see inductive research). There is no formal hypothesis, and perhaps the purpose of the study is to explore some area more thoroughly in order to develop some specific .

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The research hypothesis is a paring down of the problem into something testable and falsifiable. In the above example, a researcher might speculate that the decline in . Put simply, a hypothesis is a specific, testable prediction. More specifically, it describes in concrete terms what you expect will happen in a certain circumstance. A hypothesis is used to determine the relationship between two variables, which are the two things that are being tested.

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Characteristics of hypothesis in Research Methodology Characteristics of hypothesis: Hypothesis must possess the following characteristics: Hypothesis should be clear and precise. This type of research method might be used to investigate a hypothesis that is difficult to test experimentally. Experimental Research Methods Experimental methods are used to demonstrate causal relationships between variables.