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❶The liability of one party for the action or inaction of another party, even though the party held liable is not directly responsible for any injury.

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Turner had assumed that Babies R Us were unlikely to reply and therefore, entered into a contract with a rival company. Turner has made an appointment to see you to gain advice relating to the above problem. Equally, she would appreciate some advice relating to the formation of contracts by e-mail.

Turner's nursery has now opened and has recruited well. She is concerned as to the different types of liabilities, which she may be affected by during the course of her business and would appreciate it if you could write to her regarding this.

Explain the different types of liabilities and along with examples. To establish whether or not Mrs Turner has entered into two contracts first off all we have to look at what makes a contract and what type of offer was made to October, Date submitted: April 18, Coursework ID: You must answer the following question: Andre is a self-employed kitchen designer who deals mainly in high specification kitchens aimed at the booming home catering market.

He has a fairly large business employing several staff. He has recently acquired a consignment of hand-cut maple wood and knows of several potential purchasers who would compete with one another to buy a handmade kitchen using this wood. On 2nd May he wrote to Jamie in the following terms: If you are interested please reply by return of post. For this, I would do a top notch product placement mention for you.

In consequence, he stayed on late and at 7. Mary has decided that she is now too old to change her kitchen and does not respond to the letter. However Gino is thinking of updating his home and emails Andre on 3rd May at 9. Unfortunately Andre has lost his internet connection due to a fault with his computer system and does not read this email until after Gino arrives to sign the contract as the business opens on the 4th May. But when Andre is faced with Gino and after reading the email he agrees to sell him the kitchen.

It is when Andre goes to get the standard form contract for Gino to sign that he notices the fax machine is out of paper, he loads the paper tray, waits until the faxes are printed out and then at that point reads the fax from Jamie.

There are generally four elements required to form a contract; offer and acceptance, certainty, an intention to create legal relations and consideration. In this scenario, the important issue, in terms of the November 25, Coursework ID: The City of Coventry decided, some time ago, to celebrate its long history with a parade and pageant through the streets of the town on May Day.

It was agreed that the hotel would provide food and drink for the party. Two days before it was due to take place, Coventry City Council bowed to pressure and called the entire event off. When Martin heard this, he called the Royal Mercia Hotel and said he was no longer interested in hiring the room.

Martin and his guests did not attend on the day in question. Nevertheless the hotel sent him a bill. He counterclaimed for the return of his deposit. Advise Martin and Coventry City Council. It can be argued the purpose of the doctrine of duress is to provide some fairness for contracting parties.

In the case of Atlas Express Ltd v Kafco importers and Distributors ltd [] , Atlas threatened Kafco that if they do not sign the document, they would not deliver the goods. However later when Atlas sought to collect the money agreed on under the new contract, Kafco refused arguing the new agreement has been made under economic duress. This claim was held to be successful. Tucker J stated Kafco signed the agreement under compulsion and unwillingly, and had no bargaining power.

Therefore as Kafco had no bargaining power and was forced into the new agreement it would be fair to make the contract voidable. However the ship was given to another company and in order for the contract to not be terminated the owners offered another ship and to cover the cost of any losses incurred.

But later the ship owners said they would only provide the substitute ship if the charters agreed to waive all their rights to damages for the breach in contract. The charters protested but then agreed. It was found the waiver agreement was voidable for economic duress. In this case the charters were clearly in an unfair situation, a claim in duress would have righted the wrong the owners created and in doing so made the outcome of the contract fairer for all parties.

Looking back at the examples it is clear the doctrine of duress does provide a rational foundation, and that it creates a principle of fairness. It can be argued it also provides justification for violating the basic principle of freedom of contract, which is to not allow parties in a contract to intimidate the other party to get their way.

Further more, forcing another party into the contract violates the basic principle of freedom of contract itself; therefore duress can be thought as simply enforcing the principle and attempting to put the losing party in a position they were prior to the contract if it is decided the contract is void because of duress, the contract has essentially not occurred due to there not being consent. This was seen in the case of Halpern v Halpern [] where the parties had been in a dispute over an inheritance, which was settled.

The claimant sought damages for breach of this agreement but the defendant argued they entered under duress. This indicates there are difficulties in making the law completely fair; there may always be a party, which is in a disadvantaged situation in every duress claim that cannot be fixed by the courts.

It is clear from many previous cases in contract law that judges are reluctant to decide in favour of duress claims. An example of this stems from the case of R v Attorney General []. The judges in order to define the limits of duress; decided the decision in the case was only of persuasive authority for future cases. This is done to encourage English courts to adopt the same approach, reluctance to define the doctrine of duress, in the future cases. Judges recognise duress does violate the principle of freedom of contract, however, they would argue it is not without justification when they do decide in favour of the duress claim.

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Free Contract Law Essays. The selection of contract law essays below have been submitted to us by students in order to help you with your studies. Please remember to .

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Contract Law Essays Becoming the Norm. Regarding contract law essays, they are growing in demand because the services of contract lawyers are growing in demand. Some of the people with a need for contract law essays are people who want to know more about contract law and what contract lawyers do.

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A contract is a legally binding or valid agreement between two parties. A contract is an agreement which will be enforced be the law. Free contract law papers, essays, and research papers.

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Contract Law Case Study of Hotel Contract law involving a hotel and client A. In this scenario, the first significant point is the nature of . Mark 75%, W Contract law and tort law Answer: To evaluate this statement, we need to look at what is a frustrated contract and what are accepted as frustrations to the contract. Also, look at the common law that was used.